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mercredi 21 février 2018

Should we continue to fund large observational epidemiological studies?

Large epidemiological studies were the Graal of public health researchers notably after the WWII mainly because of the irruption of computers. Big is beautiful and bigger is more beautiful.Indeed the magnitude of studies hid biases of the findings and much more of their interpretations.


The major part of those studies is observational. Let us recall what are the limits and biases of observation of a large number of humans.

Causality: the rules.

lundi 19 février 2018

What is your opinion?

https://www.foodwatch.org/uploads/tx_abdownloads/files/Scandale_Lactalis_-_foodwatch_porte_plainte_et_accuse.pdf

The actual problem with this paper is apparently that sat fat effects on the brain needs sucrose...

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212877817309389?via%3Dihub



"The present findings demonstrate that overconsumption of saturated fat (in combination with excess sugar) that leads to the development of DIO stimulates anxiodepressive behavior. "

Saturated high fat feeding is not high fat diet: 43% carbs, 50% fat and 7% of protein...

Very ununderstandable abstract

Abstract

Objective

The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behaviour and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behaviour. To determine the aetiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behaviour and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAcimmune activity.

Methods

Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to isocaloric high-fat/high-sucrose diets (HFD), enriched in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, or a control low-fat diet (LFD). Metabolic responses, anxiodepressive behaviour, and plasma and NAc inflammatory markers were assessed after 12 weeks. In separate experiments, an adenoviral construct inhibiting IKKβ, an upstream component of the nuclear factor kappa-b (NFkB) pathway, was a priori injected into the NAc.

Results

Both HFDs resulted in obesity and hyperleptinemia; however, the saturated HFD uniquely triggered anxiety-like behaviour, behavioural despairhyperinsulinemiaglucose intolerance, peripheral inflammation, and multiple pro-inflammatory signs in the NAc, including reactive gliosis, increased expression of cytokines, antigen-presenting markers and NFкB transcriptional activity. Selective NAc IKKβ inhibition reversed the upregulated expression of inflammatory markers, prevented anxiodepressive behavior and blunted compulsive sucrose-seeking in mice fed the saturated HFD.

Conclusions

Metabolic inflammation and NFкB-mediated neuroinflammatory responses in the NAc contribute to the expression of anxiodepressive behavior and heightened food cravings caused by a diet high in saturated fat and sugar.

Leptin from adipocytes and ghrelin from GI tract


One can ask why med diet is a model of plant based diet

http://www.nutritionjrnl.com/article/S0899-9007(17)30286-1/fulltext

mercredi 14 février 2018

Check nutrients in your real life LC diet

http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/2/e018846.info

Sulphites, fermentation, side effects

https://www.google.fr/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2009/feb/14/wine-sulphites

One example: cider

A lot of ciders provoke headaches which are of multiple origins. However, sulphites are one of the major cause as it acts as a vasodilator.
Added sulphites make a great difference in the final content of sulphites even if a small amount is the result of the fermentation process.