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lundi 23 février 2015

Are you ready to take care of your microbiome? Parce que je le vaux bien!

http://mobile.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/magazine/my-no-soap-no-shampoo-bacteria-rich-hygiene-experiment.html?referrer=





Absolute and relative RR : back to basics

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2494548/

Pesticides en France: en tant que consommateur ai-je besoin des pesticides?

http://www.sciencesetavenir.fr/nature-environnement/20141226.OBS8841/la-france-toujours-championne-des-pesticides-en-europe.html

Illusion

http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2015/02/18/la-france-devient-la-troisieme-surface-agricole-bio-d-europe_4579083_3244.html


Chiffres sur les pesticides : 
  • 78000 tonnes de pesticides utilisés en 2008 
  • 2,442 milliards d’euros de dépenses des exploitations agricoles en 2006 .
  • La France est le premier consommateur européen de pesticides, et le quatrième au niveau mondial derrière les Etats-Unis, le Brésil et le Japon .
  • Si l’on rapporte la consommation à la production, la France est au quatrième rang européen derrière le Portugal, les Pays-Bas et la Belgique
  • Usage des pesticides à 95% agricole et à 5% non agricole (dont 2/3 : jardiniers amateurs, et 1/3 : entretien des voies de transports et des espaces publics)
Chiffres concernant les jardiniers amateurs :
  • Près de 90% des français disposent d’un espace de jardinage lié à leur habitat principal et 17 millions de français disposent d’un jardin 
  • 75% des Français jardinent mais le type de végétaux dont ils disposent varie (plantes d’intérieur pour 79% d’entre eux, jardin fleuri et arboré pour 66%, plantes de balcon et terrasses pour 60%, gazon pour 60% et potager pour 36%).
  • 5 à 20 variétés de végétaux sont cultivées en moyenne (Les légumes préférés sont la tomate, la salade et la pomme de terre. Pour les fruits, les cerisiers et les pommiers arrivent en tête).
  • Les jardins particuliers représentent la plus grosse proportion (2/3) des usages non agricoles de pesticides : usage de fongicides, insecticides et herbicides sur les allées, terrasses, pelouse, fleurs, potager, arbres et arbustes, plantes de la maison.
Sources :
Union des industries de la protection des plantes (UIPP), ministère de l’Agriculture, INRA, CEMAGREF 2005, étude Ecophyto 2006 et Jardivert 2010.





dimanche 8 février 2015

Diet for type 2 diabetes

http://www.touchendocrinology.com/sites/www.touchendocrinology.com/files/OsamaHamdy.pdf

Magnesium Calcium equilibrium

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22364157/

Fish and mercury: theories and results

Prenatal exposure to methyl mercury from fish consumption and polyunsaturated fatty acids: associations with child development at 20 mo of age in an observational study in the Republic of Seychelles1,2,3,4

  1. Philip W Davidson
+Author Affiliations
  1. 1From the Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster (JJS, AJY, MSM, and EMM); the School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (EvW, SWT, GEW, TML, THS, KY, DH, GJM, and PWD); and the Child Development Centre, Ministry of Health, Mahé, Republic of Seychelles (CFS and JH).
+Author Notes
  • 2 Supported by the NIH (grants R01-ES010219 and P30-ES01247) and in-kind support from the government of Seychelles.
  • 3 The study sponsors had no role in the design, collection, analysis, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
  • 4 Address correspondence to JJ Strain, Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, BT52 1SA, United Kingdom. E-mail: jj.strain@ulster.ac.uk.

Abstract

Background: Fish is a rich source of n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but also contains the neurotoxicant methyl mercury (MeHg). PUFAs may modify the relation between prenatal MeHg exposure and child development either directly by enhancing neurodevelopment or indirectly through the inflammatory milieu.
Objective: The objective was to investigate the associations of prenatal MeHg exposure and maternal PUFA status with child development at 20 mo of age.
Design: The Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 2 is an observational study in the Republic of Seychelles, a high fish-eating population. Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children evaluated at 20 mo of age by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), the MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI), and the Infant Behavior Questionnaire–Revised. There were 1265 mother-child pairs with complete data.
Results: Prenatal MeHg exposure had no direct associations with neurodevelopmental outcomes. Significant interactions were found between MeHg and PUFAs on the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) of the BSID-II. Increasing MeHg was associated with lower PDI but only in children of mothers with higher n–6/n–3. Among mothers with higher n–3 PUFAs, increasing MeHg was associated with improved PDI. Higher maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was associated with improved CDI total gestures (language development) but was significantly adversely associated with the Mental Development Index (MDI), both with and without MeHg adjustment. Higher n–6/n–3 ratios were associated with poorer scores on all 3 CDI outcomes.
Conclusions: We found no overall adverse association between prenatal MeHg exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, maternal PUFA status as a putative marker of the inflammatory milieu appeared to modify the associations of prenatal MeHg exposure with the PDI. Increasing DHA status was positively associated with language development yet negatively associated with the MDI. These findings may indicate existence of an optimal DHA balance with respect to arachidonic acid for different aspects of neurodevelopment.

1/ Do pregnant women need FO supplements?
Probably no.
http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303550904575562053166893846

2/ Is there any explanation for the importance of LC W3 PUFA in brain develpment and function?
Yes
http://www.economist.com/node/16214142

3/ So what is the balance between risk and benefit?
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/fish/