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lundi 28 novembre 2016

Cooking and cholesterol oxides

Salmon was processed by three different culinary techniques: pan-frying with olive oil, pan-frying with soya oil, and roasting. Roasting did not modify the fat content from that of raw samples. Frying increased the fat content 2-fold, with no difference between samples fried with different oils. Total cholesterol oxidized products (COPs) were 0.74, 2.98, 3.35, and 7.38 μg/g fat in raw, fried with olive oil, fried with soya oil, and roasted salmon, respectively, which represent 0.01, 0.08, 0.09, and 0.15% of cholesterol. A significant correlation (= 0.902, ≤ 0.01) was found between acidity index and total COPs. The most abundant COPs were 7-ketocholesterol, which appeared in all the samples, and cholestanetriol (one of the most citotoxic COP), which appeared only in cooked samples (1.05−1.33 μg/g fat). All cooked samples supplied more ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than raw samples and showed higher ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Roasted salmon showed the lowest ω-3 content and the highest PUFAs/(SFAs)-C18:0 and MUFAs+PUFAs/(SFAs-C18:0) ratios.

Table 3. Cholesterol oxides levels (µg.g
-1
, dry basis) in raw and grilled 
sardine and hake samples.
COPs Sardine Hake
Raw Grilled Raw Grilled
19-OH 15.18 ± 1.2
B
27.69 ± 1.3A
2.16 ± 0.1
b
3.84 ± 0.3
a
24(S)-OH 1.24 ± 0.2
B
3.45 ± 0.6A
0.37 ± 0.03
b
1.19 ± 0.1
a
22(S)-OH 1.37 ± 0.3
B
2.29 ± 0.6A
0.96 ± 0.05
b
1.53 ± 0.7
a
25-OH 1.17 ± 0.2
B
6.48 ± 0.1A
4.49 ± 0.2
b
10.84 ± 1.0
a
25(R)-OH 0.35 ± 0.04
B
0.69 ± 0.01A
0.81 ± 0.01
b
1.29 ± 0.3
a
7-keto 1.31 ± 0.6
B
2.68 ± 0.3A
- 0.66 ± 0.1
a
Tot al 20.62 ± 0.4
B
43.28 ± 0.4A
8.79 ± 0.1
b
19.35 ± 0.4
a
A,B
Mean and relative standard deviation (RSD) of the four analyses in sardine (two 
batches in duplicate); 
a,b 
Mean and relative standard deviation (RSD) of the four analyses 
in hake (two batches in duplicate); means in the same letter do not differ significantly 
(p > 0.02)

Merlu/colin = hake

mercredi 9 novembre 2016

The issue of smoking tobacco: do we stay in the quitting imperative?

https://youtu.be/fHrthNm4Sy8


Addiction is nicotine
Cancer is smoke and tars
This simplistic view has one major advantage: cutting risk of cancer and especially one of the most agressive ones, lung cancer.

mardi 8 novembre 2016

Sugar, Tobacco, histories of addiction

Sugar is not the new tobacco but rather the other tobacco.
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/871064?src=WNL_infoc_161107_MSCPEDIT_TEMP2&uac=7267HX&impID=1229394&faf=1#vp_2

  1. Sugarwise http://sugarwise.org Accessed October 26, 2016.
  2. Sugarwise. Mother convenes summit in parliament on sugar. Press release. October 12, 2016. http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/level/pressreleases/mother-convenes-summit-in-parliament-on-sugar-1601325Accessed October 26, 2016.
  3. Royal College of Physicians. Fifty years since Smoking and health: Progress, lessons and priorities for a smoke-free UK. Report of conference proceedings. London: RCP; 2012. https://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/sites/default/files/fifty-years-smoking-health.pdf Accessed October 26, 2016.
  4. Briggs ADM, Mytton OT, Kehlbacher A, et al. Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. BMJ. 2013;347:f6189.
  5. Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, et al. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One. 2013;8:e57873.
  6. Menke A, Casagrande S, Geiss L, Cowie CC. Prevalence of and trends in diabetes among adults in the United States, 1988–2012. JAMA. 2015;314:1052-1062. Abstract
  7. Yang Q, Zhang Z, Gregg EW, Flanders WD, Merritt R, Hu FB. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:516-524. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13563.
  8. Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski S, et al. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24:453-460. Epub Oct 27.
  9. Lustig RH, Schmidt LA, Brindis CD. The toxic truth about sugar. Nature. 2012;487:27-29. Abstract
  10. Prynne M. Tooth decay is the biggest cause of primary school children being hosptialised. The Telegraph. July 13, 2014. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/10964323/Tooth-decay-is-the-biggest-cause-of-primary-school-children-being-hospitalised.html Accessed October 27, 2016.
  11. Interview with Professor Aubrey Sheiham. The Sugar Podcast. August 11, 2014. http://www.sugarpodcast.org.uk/Accessed October 27, 2016.
  12. Sheiham A,James PT. A reappraisal of the quantitative relationship between sugar intake and dental caries: the need for new criteria for developing goals for sugar intake. BMC Public Health. 2014,14:863.
  13. Public Health England and the Food Standards Agency. National Diet and Nutrition Survey Results from Years 5 and 6 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2012/2013 – 2013/2014). https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/551352/NDNS_Y5_6_UK_Main_Text.pdf Accessed October 27, 2016.
  14. Johnson RK, Appel LJ, Brands M, et al. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009;120:1011-1020. Abstract
  15. Aseem M. The dietary advice on added sugar needs emergency surgery. BMJ. 2013;346:f3199.
  16. Brownell KD, Warner KE. The perils of ignoring history: big tobacco played dirty and millions died. How similar is big food? Milbank Q. 2009;87:259-294. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.
  17. Kearns CE, Schmidt LA, Glantz SA. Sugar industry and coronary heart disease research. a historical analysis of internal industry documents. JAMA Intern Med. Epub September 12, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5394.
  18. O'Connor A. How the sugar industry shifted blame to fat. The New York Times. September 12, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/13/well/eat/how-the-sugar-industry-shifted-blame-to-fat.html Accessed October 27, 2016.
  19. McColl I. There is one cure for obesity and one only: eat less. It's that or the fatness epidemic will kill more than Spanish flu. The Telegraph. October 11, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/11/there-is-one-cure-for-obesity-and-one-only-eat-less-its-that-or/ Accessed October 27, 2016.

Obesity and W3/W6 ratio

http://www.medpagetoday.com/Endocrinology/Obesity/61007?xid=nl_mpt_DHE_2016-10-26&eun=gd0r&pos=0

http://openheart.bmj.com/content/3/2/e000385

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635202/

dimanche 6 novembre 2016

Genomics is key especially in closed populations: Lithuanian ashkenazi jews and FH

"South African Jews

Ashkenazi Jews in South Africa also have high rates of FH. They are descendants of an estimated 40,000 Jews who arrived in South Africa between 1880 and 1910. They were immigrants from a small geographical area in Lithuania.22 The prevalence of HeFH among Johannesburg's Jews is 1:67.22 The majority had a common mutant allele, a 3-base pair deletion in exon 4 of the LDLR gene23 called FH-Piscataway. This same mutation has been found in other groups of Ashkenazi Jews around the world who originated from Lithuania.23 A founder effect is unlikely to have manifested with this large starting population, which suggests the high prevalence of FH stems from a founder mutation in Lithuania.




- See more at: http://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2015/07/17/08/23/variation-in-the-prevalence-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-around-the-world#sthash.VKKFaDPY.dpuf"

Nothing is more confusing than this study about cholesterol in french population (1985 sample size...) and this other one about trend of CVD mortality rates

http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr/beh/2013/31/2013_31_1.html

Another confusion the so-called dramatic decline of CVD between 2000 and 2008.
But please give us the trend before... You will see that nothing has changed. We live in a country where CVD are at a very low prevalence it is not a paradox it is the result of our way of life and eating.
http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr//beh/2011/22/beh_22_2011.pdf

French commentary

Il est surprenant que 20,1% devienne 1/3.
Il faut reprendre l'arithmétique de base.
Et ne me dites pas que vous avez ajouté les patients sous hypolipémiants car c'est un abus insupportable compte tenu:
-des indications fantaisistes
-du nombre de patients en prevention secondaire dont bon nombre n'ont pas et oui d'hyper LDL et
-la taille ridicule de l'échantillon.
En réalité il s'agit précisément dans ce texte du discours qui conduit à la prescription de statines en prevention primaire c'est à dire la plus mauvaise façon d'utiliser  les ressources.
Jamais n'est rappelé la prévalence très basse des maladies coronariennes et des accidents ischémiques cérébraux en France depuis qu'elles sont mesurées.
Le risque absolu est très bas donc assez bien décorrélé des taux de cholestérol dans les particules LDL, et cette étude ne fait que confirmer que dans notre pays c'est bien le tabac l'HTA et le diabète qui contribue aux MCV. Ensuite et après l'hyper LDLémie.

Nothing is more confusing than this study about cholesterol in french population (1985 sample size...) and this other one about trend of CVD mortality rates

http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr/beh/2013/31/2013_31_1.html

Another confusion the so-called dramatic decline of CVD between 2000 and 2008.
But please give us the trend before... You will see that nothing has changed. We live in a country where CVD are at a very low prevalence it is not a paradox it is the result of our way of life and eating.
http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr//beh/2011/22/beh_22_2011.pdf

French commentary

Il est surprenant que 20,1% devienne 1/3.
Il faut reprendre l'arithmétique de base.
Et ne me dites pas que vous avez ajouté les patients sous hypolipémiants car c'est un abus insupportable compte tenu:
-des indications fantaisistes
-du nombre de patients en prevention secondaire dont bon nombre n'ont pas et oui d'hyper LDL et
-la taille ridicule de l'échantillon.
En réalité il s'agit précisément dans ce texte du discours qui conduit à la prescription de statines en prevention primaire c'est à dire la plus mauvaise façon d'utiliser  les ressources.
Jamais n'est rappelé la prévalence très basse des maladies coronariennes et des accidents ischémiques cérébraux en France depuis qu'elles sont mesurées.
Le risque absolu est très bas donc assez bien décorrélé des taux de cholestérol dans les particules LDL, et cette étude ne fait que confirmer que dans notre pays c'est bien le tabac l'HTA et le diabète qui contribue aux MCV. Ensuite et après l'hyper LDLémie.

La désinformation est très difficile à débusquer:
So European people live actually longer, and low income people do have more CVD: so total cholesterol is of no importance except when very low because it is associated with low body weight and higher mortality
https://www.euractiv.com/section/health-consumers/infographic/infographic-europe-has-the-highest-prevalence-of-high-cholesterol-in-the-world/
No mention by the sponsor that mortality rates of CVD in France and Spain and Switzerland and Italy are low...



mercredi 2 novembre 2016

Histamine in foods and histamine reactions

https://chriskresser.com/what-you-should-know-about-histamine-intolerance/

https://chriskresser.com/could-your-histamine-intolerance-really-be-mast-cell-activation-disorder/

Mast Cell Activation Disorder